Drew provides an excellent account of the development of both the Algerian and South African Communist parties over time. Rather than being seen as a form of communism, African socialism was viewed as a pragmatic ideology that blended some aspects of classical socialism, communism, Pan-Africanism, and African traditional values.
It was evident from the very beginning of African independence that individual leaders accepted a form of socialism based on the humanistic aspects of that ideology. Historically, communism on the continent was strongest in Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, and South Africa, which had significant European settlement, but such ideas remained foreign to the African masses until the principles of Marxism-Leninism became popular among intellectuals around the time of World War I Drew A reading guide to the fundamental ideas of Marxism.
Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.
Thus, it is only in a society which is divided between hostile social classes that the state exists. Problems in the Transition to Socialism. An economy based on co-operation on human need and social betterment, rather than competition for profit of many independently acting profit seekers, would also be the end of class society, which Marx saw as the fundamental division of all hitherto existing history.
Such ideas also were introduced to African students in their formal European-based education systems. Thus, the superpowers were very much responsible for the emergence of communist orientations in some African nationalist movements.
This is an excellent treatment of the origins and development of communism or socialism on the African continent. If African movements and parties after independence allied themselves with the United States, China, or the Soviet Union, they were labeled as either capitalist or communist YoungIdahosaRosberg and CallaghyFriedland and Rosberg The emergence of nationalist movements on the continent coincided with the beginning of the Cold War, and the ideological and strategic competition involving the United States and the Soviet Union and China for client states in Africa.
According to Marxist theory, in its most advanced form, communism involves state control by the working class. Although Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels understood planning to involve the input and decisions of the individuals involved at localized levels of production and consumption, planning has been interpreted to mean centralized planning by Marxist-Leninists during the 20th century.
According to Engels, "ideology is a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness. Edited by Stephen A.
From the point where all means of production become state property, the nature and primary function of the state would change from one of political rule via coercion over men by the creation and enforcement of laws into a scientific administration of things and a direction of processes of production; that is the state would become a coordinating economic entity rather than a mechanism of class or political control, and would no longer be a state in the Marxian sense.
This eliminates the severity of previous tendencies towards inequality and conflicts arising over ownership of the means of production and property income accruing to a small class of owners. This meant, at least from the public pronouncement of leaders, their commitment to egalitarianism.
The aim of socialism is to provide an environment whereby individuals are free to express their genuine interests, creative freedom, and desires unhindered by forms of social control that force individuals to work for a class of owners who expropriate and live off the surplus product.
The value of a good in socialism is its physical utility rather than its embodied labor, cost of production and exchange value as in a capitalist system. Marx saw work, the effort by humans to transform the environment for their needs, as a fundamental feature of human kind.
A superabundance of goods and services are made possible by automated production that allow for goods to be distributed based on need rather than merit.An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory [Ernest Mandel] on fresh-air-purifiers.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A concise presentation of the basic principles of political economy. Also available in: Spanish/5(9).
- A modern introduction to the basic elements of Marxism and why socialism is the only way forward for humanity. The Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - The founding document of the Communist movement, more relevant today than when it was first written over years ago, predicting such phenomena as globalisation.
This introduction to socialist thought is by two men perhaps better qualified than any other Americans to have written it. Leo Huberman and Paul Sweezy, founding editors and publishers of the independent socialist magazine Monthly Review, built an impressive reputation as keen observers, acute.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Marxist historiography is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism. The chief tenets of Marxist historiography are the centrality of social class and economic Both Marxism and socialism have received considerable critical analysis from multiple generations of An Introduction to Karl Marx.
Cambridge, England, Communism, Marxist-Leninism, and Socialism in Africa by Introduction. Communist ideas have been prevalent in Africa since at least the early 20th century. However, nowhere on the continent was a strict form of communism ever practiced.
What were practiced were hybrid forms of socialism, including some that eclectically borrowed .Download