The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed independent. The Scandinavian countries, The Netherlands, and Belgium lived under monarchs with strictly limited powers. Inthe Portuguese began to revolt against their Spanish rulers, thereby weakening their military efforts on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire.
On May 14,he formed the Evangelical, or ProtestantUnion, an association to last for 10 years, for self-defense. France insisted on keeping Germany disarmed, and the Little Entente applied similar pressure to Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria.
Many Europeans were in a state of chronic malnutrition. The Sonderbund War of was also based on religion. It has been estimated that nearly 85, died in England and Wales during the Civil War.
On the lands of present-day Hungary lived the Asian Avars, whose place was taken in the 10th century by their kindred, the Magyars. The Protestant Netherlands Holland and Switzerland had freed themselves by successful revolt from the empire. Unlike the 16th and 18th centuries, there was no long-term increase.
The Soviet Union worked to strengthen the emerging Communist elements in other countries. Intensions between Protestants and Catholics re-emerged and led to the outbreak of the First War of Villmergen. Most of those affected were adherents of the Lutheran church, already weakened by defections to Calvinisma new creed that had scarcely a German adherent at the time of the Religious Peace of Augsburg.
Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation.
The loss of Silesia remains a very sore point with Maria Theresa, and much of her policy is now directed towards its recovery.
The Turkish Empire in Europe gradually fell apart, and the Concert supervised the establishment of the small nations as they broke away--the Christian Balkan states of Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. The conflict between democratic Western Europe and totalitarian Communism obstructed efforts to reconstruct Europe and establish world peace.
By Charlemagne had consolidated the Germanic conquests into an empire that stretched from the Ebro River in Spain to beyond the Elbe and from the North Sea to a little south of Rome. By more than half of these rulers and almost exactly half of the population were Catholic ; the rest were Protestant.
In time this flowered into the splendors of Greek and Roman culture. France replaced its absolutist Bourbon king by a monarchy more favorable to business. Russia was allowed to annex Finland from Sweden and to increase its Polish territories by absorbing the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
Scores of cities lay in ruins.The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in 16th and 17th century Europe, The major impact of the Thirty Years' War, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies.
November with special guests, Dark Horse Consort, Bruce Jacobs, organ. A new program in collaboration with Dark Horse Consort, an instrumental ensemble specializing in 17th-century brass music, this concert combines music and narrative to explore the devastating effects of the 30 Years War (), which claimed more than 8.
An Overview of European History. The Thirty Years' War () Turkey, though decreased since its high-water mark of conquest in the 17th century, still retained the greater part of the former Eastern Empire.
Venice held an extensive sway in the Adriatic and the eastern Mediterranean; and Genoa held Corsica until it passed to France. Thirty Years' War: Thirty Years’ War, (–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.
Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of. Overview. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between and It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties.
In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European. The Holy Roman Empire. HISTORY OF EUROPE Prehistory Mediterranean People on the move Rival faiths Middle Ages 16th - 17th century By the last decades of the 17th century the dominant European power is (particularly in the Thirty Years' War); on the western borders of Germany, in France's attempts to expand towards the Rhine; and to the north of .Download