Argument against cognitive relativism essay

This could be less evident in Australia where we are still creating one culture out of many as people immigrate and bring parts of their home culture with them. The two different cultures may act on these principles differently, but that does not necessarily mean they are trying to achieve different outcomes.

This leaves the first country in an awkward position; are they meant to remain true to their moral beliefs and remain non-violent when the invaders come, or are they meant to betray their beliefs and fight for their freedom and safety?

Beckwith uses an example contrasting the Hindu Indian culture with western cultures to emphasize that both have the same moral foundation in making decisions. James Rachels noted in his book Elements of Moral Philosophy that many Eskimos commit infanticide, especially toward their female children at birth Rachels, J.

While in previous decades the goal was to create one culture out of many, it is now to create many cultures out of one, particularly in the United States of America Brym, R. Norman Bowie uses a fine example to illustrate this situation.

This has been true since prehistoric times, when cavemen and women sought shelter from other wild animals and the elements. Today, with great variability between societies and cultures, moral relativism is greatly accepted as a matter-of-fact, but this is not necessarily the case. This essay will explore the rules and theories of cultural relativism, what we can learn from cultural relativism as well as the counter argument of where cultural relativism fails us.

Ethical Relativism

Essentially, this is a summation of the moral principles that a variety of cultures all agree upon. This document contains rights that all human beings deserve, regardless of cultural context.

Arguments Against Moral Relativism

Moral relativism considers the differences between the ethics of cultures but fails to look beneath what is seen on the surface of the actions. So, to begin with, what is cultural relativism? Also, Eskimo mothers nurse their children much longer than we do, sometimes for four years or more, and if a woman already has a child or two it is very difficult for Argument against cognitive relativism essay woman to nourish more children.

One of the positive results of cultural relativism is tolerance. Cultural Relativism says that there is no such thing as moral progress. He travelled across southern Europe in the late 15th century and noted some interesting differences between attitudes towards the methods by which the French and the Germans heated their rooms.

The philosophy of cultural relativism is one that states that the morals and ethics of a culture are only applicable within that culture and other cultural morals, ethics and values are not better or worse, simply different.

In the previous examples, the cultures compared agree upon respect towards their parents and disapprove of eating other humans. These issues are not necessarily evident in common, everyday situations, but in extreme situations, these issues become clearer.

Thus, every standard is culturally bound and there are only different cultural codes. Since people began travelling and immigrating there have been cultural clashes; from the colonisation of Australia, America and other islands by the British, to the mass immigration out of Europe during and after both world wars Rosaldo, R.

To proceed to a further or higher stage, or to further or higher stages continuously; to develop, increase; esp. Hitler hated the Jewish people for their beliefs, appearance and many other reasons and managed to execute a scheme to annihilate them before they tainted his dreams of an Aryan race.

A large part of cultural relativism is the debate about whether moral progress can exist in accordance with cultural relativism theories. This comparison of practices could be taken on the basis that the two periods in the culture constitute two different cultures, and again, cultural relativism dictates that two cultures are incomparable.

This situation illustrates the unrealistic nature of moral relativism. There can be none and cultural relativism brings doubt to the idea of moral progress Rachels, J. Culture Against Moral Relativism Moral relativism is the belief that the morally correct decision to make, when faced with a moral dilemma, is the one that is acceptable within the context of a given culture.

It makes for an interestingly diverse set of morals, beliefs and ethics in one country and almost creates a necessity for a moderated version of cultural relativism. This in turn implies that there is a universal standard to which the previous and its replacement practices can be compared against, which according to cultural relativism can not exist either.

For example, by following the cultural relativism theory to the letter we could not criticise the practice in Africa, Egypt and Sudan of female genital mutilation, despite the fact that it causes short and long term health concerns for the female involved.

Beckwith writes that Indians do not eat cows because they believe that they may house the reincarnated souls of human beings. He writes about the children in an African culture killing their parents while they are still youthful and healthy to preserve their health in their afterlife.

The common moral concepts that cultures share can also be seen in the business world when companies from different cultures conduct business with one another. This is the reason why moral relativism has been widely accepted by many, but, with further analysis, one discovers that this is not true.

The hiring practices and criteria may differ, but beneath these hiring practices, all companies are looking to do what they believe is best for their company. An issue that now affects cultural relativism is while before cultures did not intermingle, they now live side by side, as neighbours and good friends, or worst enemies.

The opposite of any acts born out of would be the philosophical theory of cultural relativism, which dictates that all cultures have equal moral standing. The previous example also illustrates how moral relativism can go against natural instincts. One of the most compelling arguments for a common morality between cultures is the agreement members of the United Nations have made by signing The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Cultural relativism also does not allow you to implement aspects of your own culture in your thinking, irrespective of their positive or negative impact. This sounds horrible, and our initial reaction may be one of disgust, but rarely do we stop and ask why the Eskimos kill their daughters.

While their actions in expressing these views may be questionable, they are still able to distinguish that disrespecting their parents would be a bad thing.Oct 15,  · The Philosophies of Cultural Relativism: An Essay what we can learn from cultural relativism as well as the counter argument of where cultural relativism fails us.

A large part of cultural relativism is the debate about whether moral progress can exist in accordance with cultural relativism theories. One comment on “ The. Read this discussion of arguments against relativism, including concepts of truth, cultural perceptions, and more.

The entry on cognitive relativism at the Internet Encyclopedia of Argument Against the Person - Argumentum ad hominem. Argument and Rhetoric: Premises, Inferences, Conclusions. Philosophical Quotes About Food. Arguments.

I don't think there can be an argument against moral relativism. Basic moral principles are dogmatic premises, not arguable conclusions.

The Philosophies of Cultural Relativism: An Essay

You either accept them or you don't, and if you don't then I, for one, refuse to engage with you on philosophy topics. Free Essay: Argument against moral relativism This paper will debate advantages and disadvantages of both moral relativism and deontology.

I will argue. Essays; Arguments Against Moral Relativism; Arguments Against Moral Relativism. 2 February One of the most compelling arguments for a common morality between cultures is the agreement members of the United Nations have made by signing The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

This document contains rights that all.

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Argument Against Moral Relativism - Essay 5: On Moral Relativism Yifei Wu 1. Introduction People sometimes differ greatly in their views about moral issues.

- When our ancestors began to develop cognitive thought, they began to compare themselves to one another in an attempt to decide what is morally permissible behavior, and what is.

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