Also during this period the excess over the minimal Canon composed of the Gospels and thirteen epistles varied. Jerome The Muratorian Canon or Fragment, composed in the Roman Church in the last quarter of the second century, is silent about Hebrews, James, II Peter; I Peter, indeed, is not mentioned, but must have been omitted by an oversight, since it was universally received at the time.
Moreover, by its very nature inspiration eludes human observation and is not self-evident, being essentially superphysical and supernatural. It was distinct from the four Gospels in the Old Syriac version.
Paulis still numbered separately from the time-consecrated group of thirteen. The trend of the seventeenth century Lutheran theologians was to class all these writings as of doubtfulor at least inferior, authority. Marcion may have been the first to have a clearly defined list of New Testament books, though this question of who came first is still debated.
Just how the Tetramorph was welded into unity and given to the Churchis a matter of conjecture. A glance at the Canon as exhibited in the authorities of the African, or Carthaginian, Church, will complete our brief survey of this period of diversity and discussion: In the middle decades of the fourth century the increased intercourse and exchange of views between the Orient and the Occident led to a better mutual acquaintance regarding Biblical canons and the correction of the catalogue of the Latin Church.
Irenaeus was ultimately successful in declaring that the four gospels collectively, and exclusively these four, contained the truth. And it is significant of the general trend of ecclesiastical authority that not only were works which formerly enjoyed high standing at broad-minded Alexandria--the Apocalypse of Peter and the Acts of Paul --involved by Athanasius with the apocrypha, but even some that Origen had regarded as inspired -- Barnabasthe Shepherd of Hermasthe Didache --were ruthlessly shut out under the same damnatory title.
The idea of a New Testament The question of the principle that dominated the practical canonization of the New Testament Scriptures has already been discussed under b. Nearly all the New Testament writings were evoked by particular occasions, or addressed to particular destinations.
Lucian himself had acquired his education at Edessathe metropolis of Eastern Syriawhich had, as already remarked, a singularly curtailed Canon. The witness of the New Testament to itself: That Clement does not allude to the Fourth Gospel is quite natural, as it was not composed till about that time.
It is a formal catalogue of the sacred books, unmutilated in the New Testament portion, and proves that at its time the books universally acknowledged in the influential Church of Carthage were almost identical with those received by Cyprian a century before.
Athanasius in lays down the twenty-seven books of our New Testament as alone canonical; shortly afterwards Jerome and Augustine followed his example in the West. This Roman synod must have devoted itself specially to the matter.I especially hope this site will be useful to persons who cherish the New Testament, but are unfamiliar with the history of its development.
For this development 'at a glance', see the Cross Reference Table: Writings and Authorities. Orthodox Jews often reject the New Testament because the Hebrew Scriptures repeatedly declared themselves to be eternal, suggesting that nothing more could be added to them.
Liberal scholars often reject limiting the New Testament to its twenty-seven books, because they believe there was other. The Canon of the New Testament.
By F. F.
Bruce. Chapter 3 in The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (5th edition; Leicester: Intervarsity Press, ).
Even when we have come to a conclusion about the date and origin of the individual books of the New Testament, another question remains to be answered. For readers new to serious New Testament study it does offer a reasoned antidote to some of the silliness that periodically pops at the popular level (e.g.
components of Christian Cannon were arbitrarily selected under Roman state direction, many equally valid historic Gospels were suppressed, etc.)/5(31).
The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance - Kindle edition by Bruce M. Metzger.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance/5(31). I have also always heard that the New Testament canon was established at a church council.
Although the exact list of New Testament documents was confirmed at the third Synod of Carthage ( AD), this was a relatively small regional council and by this time the 27 New Testament documents had already been agreed upon by most of the church.Download